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Annual Report of the Council for 1999-2000


1. The Council, with the General Board, early in the Lent Term 2000 established a Standing Committee on Governance. Before the Committee was established, the Council reported to the University on questions concerning the composition of the Council (Reporter, 1999-2000, p. 237). This Report has been the subject of a Discussion, and the Council, through the Governance Committee and in consultation with the General Board, are now considering how further to report to the University.

2. The Council have also reported to the University about possible changes to the arrangements for Discussions (Reporter, 1999-2000, p. 722). This Report has also been the subject of a Discussion, and the Council are considering the remarks made. The Council expect to publish a Notice in the Michaelmas Term 2000.

3. In their last Annual Report, the Council recorded the introduction of a monthly cycle of meetings of the Council, the General Board, and the Finance Committee, and new arrangements for presentation of business at Council meetings. These measures have helped the Council to begin to focus their attention on the strategic direction of the University. Further consideration is now being given to the underlying committee structure: a new Personnel Committee, replacing the Work and Stipends Committee and Assistant Staff Committee, has been established and plans are being developed for a new Resource Allocation Committee to replace the Allocations Committee of the Council and Needs Committee of the General Board. The new structure will further improve the flow of business by allowing effective delegation of business.

4. The Council have received an Opinion on the impact of the Human Rights Act 1998, to come into force in October 2000, on the University's Statutes and Ordinances. A number of relatively minor amendments were proposed and the Council will bring forward Reports if appropriate.

Planning and Resources

5. The following are among the major areas of business considered by the Council and the General Board through their Planning and Resources Committee:

Strategic Plan

6. In the Michaelmas Term 1999 the Council and the General Board invited comments from institutions and individuals on the University's Mission for the next decade. A consultation paper was published (Reporter, 1999-2000, p. 42) setting out a number of questions for particular consideration, including the education offered by the University; the broader relationship between the University and the Colleges; future developments in research; and the University's role in the community. The Planning and Resources Committee have under consideration the many responses received. In addition, the Colleges' Committee have begun an enquiry into the capacity of the Colleges to take additional student numbers. In the light of these consultations, and subject to the availability of the necessary resources, the Council intend to publish in due course, for consideration by the University, a revised version of the University's Strategic Plan incorporating updated statements of the University's Mission and core values; it is hoped that the revised Strategic Plan will provide a secure basis for taking forward the planning of the University's future development.

Homerton and the School of Education

7. Through a Working Party established by the Planning and Resources Committee, the Council and the General Board, in discussion with the School of Education and the authorities of Homerton College, are considering proposals for the convergence of the teaching and research of Homerton College with the activities of the University Department of Education. The Council hope to be in a position to report to the University about these proposals during the Michaelmas Term 2000.

Virtual university

8. The impact on the University of the growth elsewhere of e-university activities has been considered by the Council and the General Board, through their Planning and Resources Committee. They have concluded, on the basis of developments in e-commerce generally, that a diversity of approaches with partners of the University's own choosing should be encouraged. The establishment by the General Board of the Centre for Applied Research in Educational Technologies (CARET), the partnership of the Judge Institute with FT Knowledge to provide web-based courses for the M.B.A. Degree, and the common courses to be developed by the Cambridge-MIT Institute are welcome examples of that diversity. In encouraging these developments, the Council and the General Board will ensure that Faculties and Departments do not enter into exclusive relationships with partners that would prejudice development of University-wide activities. They will also ensure that the University has quality control procedures and intellectual property rights and copyright policies that are appropriate and which support these new developments.

Resource Allocation Model

9. The processes by which resources (i.e. recurrent and non-recurrent funds) are allocated in the University are largely historically based and dependent on discussions in committees of the strength of relative needs.

10. In recent years, many universities have developed Resource Allocation Models (RAMs) to support their internal resource allocation and, in some cases, to achieve greater integration with the planning process. As well as taking into account the appropriate allocations to a Faculty or Department, such models also encompass the attribution of centrally funded indirect costs and services. In 1998 the Planning and Resources Committee of the Council and General Board agreed that a high priority should be given to the development of such a model to support the resource allocation process across all institutions in Cambridge. Although it is recognized that the development of a model in a university as large, complex, and diverse as Cambridge would not be straightforward, it is envisaged that such a model would:

(i) enable a rational debate about the resources allocated to each institution;
(ii) enable institutions to see the factors which have a direct bearing on their Chest funding;
(iii) provide all institutions with a better understanding of the cost of their Chest-financed activities;
(iv) allow proposed new developments to be considered on a cost-benefit as well as on an academic basis; and
(v) provide in due course for the development of service-level agreements covering the provision of central services.

11. A model, based on an 'income earned' approach in which institutions would initially receive all the income attributable to them and be required to make a single payment for their contribution to central costs and centrally funded services but with allowances for moderating factors, has been devised and was the subject of a consultation document issued in the Lent Term 2000 to the Councils of the Schools and similar bodies. The development of the model will continue, taking account of the consultation exercise, in the course of 2000-01.


Estate Plan

12. The start of a detailed review of the University's estate was described in the Council's Annual Report for 1998-99. This has continued during the year, and should result in the approval of an Estate Plan during 2000-01.

13. During the last year there has been a detailed review of all the operational buildings with the main aim of assessing the size and nature of the estate needed now and in the future. It is a long and detailed process to get 'clean data' on space and land, but this information together with accurate staff and student numbers, is necessary for taking good decisions on allocating scarce resources.

14. In essence, the Estate Plan addresses first the nature and extent of the current estate and its local environment. Then it assesses needs based on 'space norms' reflecting Cambridge practices in teaching and research, with some allowances for certain specialist equipment, museums, and some other special circumstances. The quality of space and the optimum locations for cognate disciplines are also being assessed.

15. The preparation of the Estate Plan has reached the point of identifying those Faculties and Departments with additional space requirements, which have been prioritized by the Councils of Schools and the Needs Committee. Option appraisals within those Faculties and Departments with the highest priority space needs, taking account of what is possible both physically and financially, are being conducted.

16. The Estate Plan will conclude with an action plan for an estate which is both adequate and affordable. The plan will include a prioritized list of future capital projects aimed at bringing Faculties and Departments up to at least a sensible minimum level of space sufficient for high-quality research and teaching, on the assumption that waste and poor use of space are at a minimum. Achieving adequate funding for such projects will be a continuing target for the Development Office and the Council.

North West Cambridge

17. In response to the publication by the Secretary of State for the Environment, Transport and the Regions of draft Regional Planning Guidance for East Anglia, the Council have begun a review of the policies for the future use of the University's land between Huntingdon Road, Madingley Road, and the M11 motorway. The land forms part of the University's long-term land bank and is mainly in agricultural use by the University Farm.

18. Following a Report in May 2000 the University has approved the preparation of an outline medium- to long-term strategy for development of the North West Cambridge area so as to provide for University housing and future academic needs, support facilities, and University-related knowledge-based research. To take this forward the Council have agreed that the Planning and Resources Committee should establish a Land Use Working Group to discuss such land-use planning in the context of wider planning issues and report back in due course to the Council.

West Cambridge

19. Following the granting of outline planning approval in April 1999 for the West Cambridge Master Plan, detailed planning approval and approval of reserved matters was achieved for the Computer Laboratory and the Microsoft Research Building on 17 January and 5 April 2000 respectively. Shepherd Construction were appointed following a two-stage tendering process to undertake the building of both projects and these began on adjacent sites on 7 February and 3 July 2000. The construction phase of the Microsoft Research Building is being funded directly by Microsoft and co-ordinated by their external project managers; on its satisfactory completion the University will purchase the building as an addition to its investment portfolio.

20. The start of construction work to the Computer Laboratory was delayed by some two months to allow an extensive archaeological dig to take place. The Roman remains, consisting of large aisled timber buildings, shrines, and cemeteries, together with military equipment, found in this area of the site were considered extraordinary and of regional significance, and warranted more detailed and lengthy investigation than initially expected. In acknowledgement, the University hosted on site a successful public open day on 18 March followed by a Schools' Week exhibition from 20 to 24 March to coincide with National Science Week.

21. Following the announcement of Marconi funding in March 2000 detailed project management arrangements for the construction of the Marconi Building have been concluded, allowing the commencement of building design. The building for the Computer Laboratory, the Microsoft Research Building, and the Marconi Building will be grouped to the north of the existing Cavendish Laboratories in accordance with the approved Master Plan. Progress of the works on site can be viewed at http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/westc.

22. A demolition programme to remove the dilapidated buildings at Vicar's Farm, off Clerk Maxwell Road, was undertaken, allowing final archaeological investigations to take place on this part of the site prior to starting the Park and Cycle site construction work. Reserved matters planning approval was achieved on 5 April 2000 allowing detailed construction drawings to be prepared and work to start in early August 2000.

23. Because of the loss of car parking on the Old Addenbrooke's Hospital Site, the start on site of the Wellcome/CRC (JIF funded) Biological Sciences building, Phase II, off Tennis Court Road, is dependent on the completion and operation of the University's Park and Cycle scheme; provision of this is a condition of the original 1994 planning approval.

24. Infrastructure works, which started in July 2000, are now being implemented site-wide at West Cambridge and include laying improved mains services and up-grading roads, as well as the formation of earth banks and perimeter planting and preparation for the East Forum. Significant in the realization of the Master Plan for West Cambridge has been the demolition of Merton Hall Farm and preparation of the site for re-use by the School of Clinical Veterinary Medicine as pasture.

25. Proposals for funding, procurement, and management of housing, a children's nursery, and the East Forum are being developed. The East Forum is fundamental to the success of those buildings already under construction and for the whole of West Cambridge. Preparatory work for continual development of the whole site continues.



26. During the Michaelmas Term 1999, the CAPSA project was re-launched with a revised budget and scope which included a major change to the chart of accounts and a significant increase to the amount of training to be provided. The revised go-live date for the project was 1 August 2000, but although CAPSA was launched on that date, the immediate implementation has been unsatisfactory in both performance and functionality.

27. The Council recognize that whilst every effort is being made to complete the implementation successfully, it is by no means certain that it will deliver the planned returns for the University in terms of management of information to those responsible for budgets at all levels within the organization; better financial control; improved auditability; greater transferability of skills within the University; and greater transparency of accounting practice.


Internal audit

28. The Annual Report of the Audit Committee was presented to the Council at their meeting in December 1999; the timing of the report had been brought forward, in response to HEFCE guidelines, to allow the Council to receive it before the University's financial statements were signed. The Audit Committee reported that, in their opinion, based on the reports of the internal and external auditors, the University's systems of internal control were operating satisfactorily, but noted, in particular, the risk of foreign exchange losses on EU grants; the importance of the continued development of management information as an aid to decision making, and the continuing problems over fixed-asset registers and the segregation of financial duties in certain Departments. The Audit Committee recognized that some outstanding issues relating to the adequacy of management information systems identified in the previous year's report had not yet been resolved because the CAPSA project had not been implemented at that time, but they monitored the development of the project closely and were satisfied with the progress made. The Audit Committee also reported their opinion that, on the basis of information available to them, the University had satisfactory arrangements for promoting economy, efficiency, and effectiveness. The Committee closely monitored the work done by the Year 2000 Group, the Purchasing Working Group, and the CAPSA Steering Committee. In the Lent Term 2000 the Audit Committee received the External Audit Management Letter for 1998-99 for the Local Examinations Syndicate and agreed that the UCLES accounts should in future also be circulated to the Committee. In the Easter Term 2000 the internal auditors were contracted to do their first separate value-for-money study, in line with the HEFCE Audit Code of Practice.

HEFCE audit

29. The HEFCE Audit Service undertook a visit to the University in June 2000, with the objective of evaluating the internal management control arrangements. The following four aspects of the internal control system were reviewed in particular: governance, audit arrangements, financial management, and strategic planning and administrative management arrangements. The final report is not yet available, but it is understood that it is likely to say that the management control arrangements were largely effective and that the requirements of the Financial Memorandum were met, although it was noted that further progress needed to be made in connection with the development of a value-for-money strategy and the establishment of operational plans to underpin the new Strategic Plan.

Lifelong Learning and the Board of Continuing Education

Review of Continuing Education and lifelong learning

30. The Review Committee on Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning reported to the Council in the Easter Term 2000. This Committee, which was chaired by Mrs Anne Lonsdale, made major proposals which are currently under consideration by the Council and the General Board. The Council expect to report about them during the academical year 2000-01.


31. During the autumn of 1999 the University submitted a bid for money from the HEFCE under the new HERoBAC (Higher Education Reach-out to Business and the Community) scheme. The HERoBAC Fund was established by Government with the aim of increasing the capacity of Higher Education Institutions to respond to the needs of business and the wider community, where this would lead to wealth creation. The University's bid, whilst recognizing the importance of preserving entrepreneurial autonomy and capacity to innovate, acknowledged that more co-ordination and communication was needed in order to ensure that initiatives by different people and institutions were complementary and effective.

32. The bid was successful and an allocation of £1.1m over four years was awarded. The major part of this grant is being used to set up a Reach-Out Office, which will be a new operational entity attached to the University Offices. The Reach-Out Office will seek to establish open and collaborative relationships with Faculties and Departments and will operate in close association with other 'service' institutions. It will have two main activities: assisting with the development and nurturing of partnerships and relationships between the University and external organizations, and providing information services.

Institutions under the supervision of the Council

Local Examinations Syndicate

33. The year 1999-2000 has been one of consolidation for UCLES. The structural and operational changes initiated during the previous year have been fully implemented, with three outwards-facing business streams now firmly established and trading in UCLES' English as a foreign language, UK, and international markets. This restructuring has enabled UCLES to focus more effectively than in the past on the needs of its customers, while at the same time enabling potential cost savings to be more easily identified.

34. During 1999-2000 UCLES began systematically to review areas of operational duplication and potential inefficiency across its Birmingham, Cambridge, and Coventry sites. The first significant outcome of this review was the decision to outsource UCLES' print supply to Cambridge University Press (CUP) with effect from October 2000.

35. 1999-2000 also saw UCLES continue with a major programme to reduce duplication, and associated cost inefficiencies, across its suite of non-vocational UK syllabuses. A new suite of UK A Levels was launched for teaching in September 2000, and work continues on a new suite of GCSE syllabuses to be launched in September 2001. Although old syllabuses will still be offered in parallel with the new for a year, the benefits of a more streamlined UK syllabus provision will soon be felt. The development and consolidation of vocational qualification provision also continued during the year, with a new suite of GNVQ syllabuses made available for first teaching in September 2000.

36. UCLES also continued to respond to ever-increasing external pressures on its international markets. Economic difficulties and moves towards the local provision of examinations by many countries have for some years threatened UCLES' international business and highlighted the need for alternatives to its traditional examination products. UCLES' response has been to invest significantly in alternative examination products, and 1999-2000 saw the launch of the Cambridge Career and Skills Awards, a suite of vocational qualifications which is integral to UCLES' plan to revitalize its international markets.

37. UCLES' EFL activity has continued to expand, with especially strong growth in the Young Learners Tests, Business English Certificates, and International English Language Testing System. The introduction of new computer-based testing services is a major priority and early indications are that the demand for these services is likely to be considerable. International recognition of the examinations is increasing rapidly, enhanced by UCLES' active participation in the Association of Language Testers in Europe which is creating new opportunities for expansion in Europe.

38. UCLES values Information Technology as a key means of improving customer service, providing competitive advantage, and delivering efficiency savings. For this reason, a series of enhancements to the examinations processing system that was implemented in 1998 was initiated. These enhancements consisted primarily of performance improvements, with the result that the system should provide a suitably stable base for traditional examination processing for a number of years. In addition, although UCLES anticipates the need to continue with the provision of traditional pen and paper examinations for some time to come, investigation continued into the application to the examination process of alternative on-line and Internet technologies.

39. The initiatives taken during 1999-2000 ensure that UCLES continues to work towards achieving its goal of becoming one of the world's leading assessment agencies, with a strong reputation for promoting the academic excellence of the University. They also ensure that UCLES' plan to deliver an operating surplus by the year 2000-01 remains realistic.

Careers Service

40. The Careers Service experienced another very busy year with Cambridge graduates much in demand. The level of those still seeking employment remained very low (just under 4 per cent). The number of employers making presentations reached a new record level. The Service continued to inform the University about employment-related issues and to expand its work with Faculties and Departments. More work was undertaken with Contract Research Staff and, in a major upgrade of IT facilities, password-access for alumni to the Service's vacancy lists was introduced at the end of the academical year. The use of the Service's website continues to develop strongly. The average weekly figure for hits on the website is around 12,000 (8,000 last year) with a peak of just over 24,000 during the early Lent Term 2000 (14,000 in 1999). A system of e-mail newsgroups was also introduced for students.

Fitzwilliam Museum

41. Thanks to the award of a grant of £302,000 from the Heritage Lottery Fund, the Museum's plans for re-development are well underway. The development will allow remodelling of the shop to improve access to the Museum and also provide rooms for the Education Department and Departments of Antiquities and Applied Arts as well as an additional temporary exhibitions gallery. The estimated total cost of the scheme is £10m, and the Museum has launched an appeal for funds.

Other institutions under the supervision of the Council

42. Under their new arrangements for the periodic review of individual institutions under their supervision, the Council announced in February a review of the Occupational Health Service (Reporter, 1999-2000, p. 458).

43. The Council expect that the Review Committee will report in the Michaelmas Term on the way in which the Occupational Health Service operates and the services it currently provides for the University and should be offering in the future.

Administrative arrangements

University Card

44. The University Card Service is part of the Management Information Services Division of the University Offices. The pilot project, which started in December 1999 to issue cards to approximately 2,000 staff and students was successful and the cards remain in use for the new Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Peterhouse, and The Old Schools. The Photography and Production Offices were set up in May 2000 at the Old Press Site and have been open for business since that time. The number of staff who have so far had their photograph taken has been slightly disappointing, but steps are being taken to rectify this. Approximately one-third of returning students were photographed before the end of the academical year with most of the remaining photographs to be supplied by Colleges. Work is underway to produce cards for new undergraduates in time for the 2000-01 academical year, relying on information from Colleges due by the end of August.

45. The card has a smart chip, an infra-red bar stripe and the University Library bar code as well as a picture and the name of the cardholder. Every card also carries a College colours flash and expiry date. Around 25 uses of the card have already been identified and there are a number of initiatives underway to use the smart chip at an early stage.

Data Protection

46. The Council, in January 1999, set up a Working Party on the Data Protection Act 1998 to consider the issues and to bring forward policy and procedural proposals to the central bodies. The Working Party reported to the Council in July 2000. The Act is complex, and in many important respects its interpretation is uncertain. The Working Party have made a number of recommendations on policy and procedures necessary to ensure that the University is fully compliant with the Act, which the Council will be considering during the Michaelmas Term. In the meantime the University Data Protection Officer continues to give advice and make preparations for the full implementation of the Act in October 2001.


47. The appointment of a Director of Personnel and the establishment of the Personnel Division from 1 November 1999 demonstrated the Council's commitment to develop a comprehensive and coherent strategy of personnel policy and practice in respect of all the groups of University staff. Following the creation of the Division, the transfer to it of other personnel functions undertaken elsewhere in the University Offices is underway, while the relationship between the new Division and the Occupational Health Service, the Safety Office, and the Counselling Service has begun to be better defined. Within the Division senior staff have been designated as Personnel Consultants to Schools and other institutions and an increasingly close working relationship is being forged between the former Work and Stipends and Assistant Staff Offices.

48. Subsequent to the creation of the new Division, a Personnel Committee was established as a Joint Committee of the Council and the General Board and this Committee held their inaugural meeting on 5 April 2000. The remit of the Committee is wide ranging - with an overview of policies, procedures, and practices - and inclusive - with all groups of staff employed by the University falling within their purview. Also, under their terms of reference, the Personnel Committee are charged with consulting the Colleges over issues of mutual concern in employment matters. For this purpose the Personnel Committee and the Colleges' Committee have set up a Joint Consultative Group (the '3 + 3 Group') which met for the first time on 19 July 2000.

49. Since the establishment of the Personnel Committee and the Personnel Division the task has begun of reviewing existing policies and developing new ones. In order to take matters forward, several Working Groups have been set up to look at some important issues of personnel management. Also, with the support of the Vice-Chancellor, an audit has been undertaken which will help determine the next stage of the agenda for equal opportunity following on from the work undertaken in the context of the University's membership, since 1993, of the Opportunity 2000 (now Opportunity NOW) campaign.

50. The conclusions reached as a result of these activities will feed into the development of a personnel strategy for the University. The Personnel Committee have given preliminary consideration to this already and the intention is to aim for a consultation Report to be published in the near future. Clearly the strategy will have to strike a balance between arrangements necessary to enable the University to meet the challenges facing it (including a greater delegation of authority for some aspects of personnel management) and due regard for the constitutional position that exists in the University. The strategy will also need to recognize need to prioritize efforts and to introduce change in a manageable fashion.

Student matters

51. The Council's work on student matters continues to be conducted principally through the Student Matters Committee, which is now a joint Committee with the General Board.

52. The Council have recently reviewed the arrangements for CUSU and the Graduate Union, and some changes are being implemented. The Council also have under consideration proposals for changes to the arrangements for student membership of the Council, and for the introduction of student membership of the General Board. The Council expect to report further about these matters if changes are to be pursued.

53. A major development during the year has been the Report to the University about the proposed arrangements for the review of examination results for undergraduate and comparable examinations, which follows the important work of the Committee chaired by the Principal of Newnham on the same subject. The Council hope that legislation to introduce the new system will be approved during the present academical year, and that the new system can be in force for the 2001 examinations.

54. The Council have initiated a review of student complaints arrangements. Cambridge's arrangements, particularly through the Colleges, for dealing with student problems are well developed, but there is scope for the development of more formal integrated procedures for dealing with complaints. A Working Party chaired by Dr J. A. Leake, and with full student representation, is considering the possibilities, and the Council expect to consider the Working Party's report during the academical year 2000-01.

55. The Council have continued to note with approval the energetic activities of the Colleges collectively in dealing with questions of widening access to undergraduate education in the University. The principal responsibility for these activities rests with the Intercollegiate Admissions Forum, and this work is supplemented by an overview provided by a task force established by the Colleges' Committee (currently chaired by Sir David Harrison). University aspects of the matter, including the allocation of funds indicated by the HEFCE for widening participation, Cambridge participation in collective regional activities for widening participation (through the 'Four Counties' Group), and other initiatives, are the responsibility of the Joint Consultative Committee on Admissions, which is chaired by the Vice-Chancellor. This Committee provides regular information to the central bodies and to the Admissions Forum and the Senior Tutors' Committee. The role of the Committee is being further strengthened by the addition of members nominated by the Councils of the Schools.

External relations and development

56. During the year, the Council were able to report to the University on proposals for the establishment of a scheme of scholarships for overseas students to be funded through a benefaction of $210m from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The Council record their great pleasure and gratitude to the Foundation. An independent trust, the Gates Cambridge Trust, has been established with the University as Custodian Trustee to administer the scholarships which the Council expect to add significantly to the University's international reputation. The scheme is permanently endowed.

57. During the year, the Council have been kept informed of discussions between the American Friends of Cambridge University and Cambridge University Development Office in the US to merge their two organizations into a single body to represent Cambridge, University and Colleges, in the US. The new body, to be called Cambridge in America, is expected to assist both the University and the Colleges in fundraising and in public relations in the US. The creation of Cambridge in America reflects renewed desire on the part of the Colleges and of the Council for there to be effective collaboration in fundraising between the Colleges and the University whenever possible. The Council believe that the Collegiate University can only benefit by such collaboration. To that end, they also proposed new arrangements for the oversight of the Development Office. As a result the University agreed that the Office and the Director should be directly accountable to the Vice-Chancellor and that in place of the previous Advisory Committee there should be a joint committee of the University and Colleges on development matters.

58. At the beginning of the year, the Development Director, Mr Michael Smithson, resigned to take up the corresponding position at the University of Oxford. Mr Smithson had been Director during a period of growing success in fundraising, and the Council record their gratitude to him.

59. The last year has seen the Press and Publications Office engaged in a wide range of public relations activities. The new partnership between Cambridge and MIT was launched at a press conference in November, and was reported in major newspapers in Britain and the US. In January a bid was made to dispel myths surrounding admissions interviews at Cambridge when a journalist from the Independent was invited to follow the selection procedure at Clare College. The University's National Science Week, in March, was organized around the theme 'Things with Wings'. It attracted more than 30,000 visits. A major funding announcement was made in April: the communi-cations giant, Marconi, pledged £40m to fund a new Communications Research Centre and research programme, and a press conference was held in London to announce the partnership. A £6.7m campaign was launched by the University Library in August to buy an important collection of Sir Isaac Newton's papers. Extensive press coverage was generated, which resulted in a generous donation in support of the purchase.

23 October 2000

ALEC N. BROERS, Vice-Chancellor

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Cambridge University Reporter, 24 November 2000
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